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我需要喝果汁排毒吗 养生方法该听谁的?

最新订阅内容:英语爱好者摘要:有些人只喝蔬菜汁,另一些人则浸泡在泻盐中
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Some drink only vegetable juice. Others soak in Epsom salts. It's all in the pursuit of ridding the body of months or years of accumulated toxins, said to be the cause of fat, fatigue, diabetes, memory problems and countless other conditions.
有些人只喝蔬菜汁,另一些人则浸泡在泻盐中。他们这样做都是为了排出体内数月来或数年来堆积的毒素。据称这些毒素会引发肥胖、疲劳、糖尿病、记忆力减退及其他无数的疾病。

The question isn't just whether these techniques work. It's whether the body is overwhelmed by toxins to begin with.
但我们的疑问并不仅是这些方式方法是否有用,而是身体是否从一开始就因为毒素而不堪重负。

The promises of liquid cleanses and other techniques have attracted legions of followers, celebrity endorsers and millions in venture capital funds. The trend has helped supercharge the U.S. diet industry, which passed $60 billion in sales last year. it has also made carrying gunky green juice a status symbol in fitness circles.
有关液体净化和其他一些排毒方法的承诺已吸引了大批追随者、明星代言人和来自风险投资基金的数百万资金。这一趋势已帮助美国节食业蓬勃发展,该行业去年销售额就超过了600亿美元。这一潮流还使携带黏稠绿色果汁成为健身界社会地位的一个象征。

Consuming more vegetables is great, mainstream doctors and nutritionists agree. But they dismiss the detox claims as a confusing jumble of science, pseudoscience and hype. They argue that humans already have a highly efficient system for filtering out most harmful substances -- the liver, kidneys and colon.
主流医师与营养学家一致认为,进食更多的蔬菜挺好的。但他们却对排毒一说予以驳斥,声称那只是一个令人困惑的、糅合了科学、伪科学与炒作的杂乱说辞。他们争论称,人类已经拥有了一个能将大多数有害物质都过滤掉的高效体系──肝脏、肾脏和结肠。

'If you're confused, you understand the issue perfectly,' says Edward Saltzman, an associate professor at Human Nutrition Center on Aging at Tufts University.
美国塔夫茨大学(Tufts University) 人体营养中心之老化研究(Human Nutrition Center on Aging)副教授爱德华・索尔兹曼(Edward Saltzman)说:“如果你感到困惑,那你就已经明白问题之所在了。”

'Nobody has ever been able to tell me what these toxins are,' says Donald Hensrud, an internist and nutrition specialist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.
唐纳德韩斯鲁德(Donald Hensrud)是明尼苏达州罗彻斯特市(Rochester, Minn)梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)的一名内科医生、营养专家,他说:“从来没有人能够告诉我,这些毒素到底是什么。”

Some detox regimens rely on what could be dangerous levels of calorie restriction if followed for long periods, these experts say. Other versions advocate 'what many of us already recommend -- eating more fruits and vegetables and fewer refined carbohydrates,' says Dr. Hensrud.
这些专家称,有些排毒养生法就是靠限制卡路里摄入水平,如果长期遵循这样的限制标准进食,可能会危及人的健康。韩斯鲁德博士称,其他一些版本的排毒法则提倡“我们中的许多人已经推荐过的饮食法──进食更多的水果和蔬菜,少吃精制碳水化合物。”

Detox proponents define toxins very broadly. Mark Hyman, a physician and author of six best-selling diet books, says the biggest toxic threats come from the American diet itself. 'We are eating pharmaceutical doses of sugar and flour,' which have overwhelmed the liver's ability to cope, says Dr. Hyman. He points to the overabundance of Americans with fatty liver disease, which leads to obesity, insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders.
排毒支持者对毒素的定义非常宽泛。六本最畅销饮食书籍的作者、医师马克・海曼(Mark Hyman)称,最大的毒素威胁来自美式饮食本身。海曼博士说,“我们正在进食药物剂量的糖和面粉,”这已使得肝脏的应对能力不堪重负。他指出,过多的美国人都患有脂肪肝疾病,而这将导致糖尿病、胰岛素抗性和其他一些代谢紊乱症。

He says Americans are also being assaulted by heavy metals (including mercury from large fish and old dental fillings) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (including Bisphenol A in makeup and credit-card receipts) as well as 'spiritual toxins,' such as loneliness and hostility. But he says people reduce their exposure and enhance their ability to excrete such toxins with the right balance of foods, vitamins and minerals.
他说,美国人还正在遭受重金属(包括来自大型鱼类和老式补牙填充物中的汞)、环境内分泌干扰物(包括化妆品和信用卡收据中的双酚A)以及诸如孤独和敌意这样的“精神毒素”的侵害。但他表示,人们减少了与这些毒素的接触,并通过正确平衡饮食、维他命和矿物质来增强自身排毒的能力。

Dr. Hyman's latest book, 'The Blood Sugar Solution 10-Day Detox Diet,' published in February, recommends avoiding all sugar, grains, dairy products, legumes, alcohol, caffeine and processed foods. Instead, followers consume a fruit-and-protein shake in the morning, then vegetables and lean protein for lunch and dinner.
海曼博士最新的一本著作名为《10天排毒餐的血糖解决方案》(The Blood Sugar Solution 10-Day Detox Diet),已于2月份出版。该书建议要避免食用糖、谷物、乳制品、豆类、酒精、咖啡因和加工食品。取而代之的是,早上要喝一杯水果和蛋白质奶昔,然后是午餐和晚餐进食蔬菜与瘦蛋白。

He also suggests they take a long list of supplements and drink water with PGX, a form of fiber that expands in the stomach, before every meal. The combination resets the metabolism and cleans out the digestive system, Dr. Hyman says. He has also argued that a detox bath with Epsom salts each night helps remove heavy metals through the skin and reduces stress.
他还建议读者在每顿餐前进食许多补剂、并喝点含有PGX的水,PGX是一种能在胃里膨胀的纤维。海曼博士称,这样的组合会重置新陈代谢并清理消化系统。他还声称,每晚一次泡在泻盐中的排毒浴有助于让重金属透过皮肤排出并减少压力。

Liver specialists say that up to 20% of adults have some form of fatty liver disease, in which excess fat in the liver leads to inflammation, scar tissue and eventually liver failure. Some cases are due to alcohol abuse. Genetics, hepatitis, autoimmune disease and medication use also play a role. It isn't clear whether fatty liver causes obesity or vice versa.
肝脏专家说,高达20%的成年人都患有某种形式的脂肪肝疾病,这类疾病是由于肝脏中多余的脂肪引发了炎症、瘢痕组织并最终导致肝功能衰竭。有些病例是因为酗酒造成的。而遗传基因、肝炎、自体免疫疾病和用药也会成为病因。目前尚不清楚到底是脂肪肝造成了肥胖还是肥胖引发了脂肪肝。

Dr. Hyman says most doctors are 'hopelessly ignorant' about the impact of toxins on the body, but he concedes that further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms. 'Has anyone done a comprehensive study and measured the body's toxic burden before and after this approach? No,' he says. 'Do we need something like that? Yes.'
海曼博士说,大多数医生都对毒素对人体的影响“无可救药地无知”,但他承认,为了更好地理解该机制,大家需要进行进一步的研究。 “有没有人进行过一项全面综合性的研究、并在这一方法实施前后分别检测衡量人体的毒素负担?没有。”他说:“那我们需要类似这样的研究吗?需要。”

Both camps agree that taking a break from alcohol and caffeine even temporarily can improve one's health, starting with improved sleep. Eliminating alcohol can also lower liver enzymes that raise alcohol tolerance in heavy drinkers. That change can also be a good test of dependency -- if you can't quit for even a few days, that's a red flag. Kicking caffeine can lower blood pressure, but doing so abruptly can cause headaches and irritability, so some diets recommend tapering down ahead of time.
双方阵营一致认为,即使是暂时戒掉酒精和咖啡因也能改善一个人的健康程度,而这会从改善睡眠开始。戒酒还能降低肝?,后者会提高酗酒者的酒精耐度。上述改变还会是检测依赖性的一个好方法──如果你连几天都戒不了,那就是一个危险信号。戒掉咖啡因能够降低血压,但突然这样做会引发头痛和烦躁情绪,所以一些饮食法建议提前逐渐减少咖啡因用量。

Other regimens counsel cutting out entire food groups -- such as wheat and dairy -- sometimes for 30 days or longer. Some followers say they feel more energetic, more clearheaded and less gassy as a result.
其他的养生法则建议削减整个食物群──如小麦和乳制品──戒食时段有时是30天或更长。一些遵循该养生法的人称,结果他们感到精力更充沛,头脑更清醒并且胀气更少了。

That may be because they have an unrecognized lactose intolerance or sensitivity to gluten, a protein found in wheat. Scientists don't typically classify such foods as toxins. 'But if eliminating it from your diet makes you feel better, it may be a kind of personal toxin,' says Dr. Saltzman of Tufts. 'As long as the rest of your diet is sustainable and nutritionally adequate, that's fine.'
这可能是因为这些人身患尚未诊断出的乳糖不耐症或对麸质过敏,麸质是常见于小麦中的一种蛋白质。一般来说,科学家不会将这类食物归类为毒素。塔夫茨大学的索尔兹曼博士说:“但如果将它从你的饮食中剔除出去以后,你感觉更好了,那它可能就是一种个体性的毒素。只要你剩下的饮食营养充足并可持续摄入,那就没问题。”

But some cleanses are often little more than fasting regimens. The 'master cleanse,' devised to treat ulcers in the 1940s, consists of six to 12 glasses of water mixed with lemon juice, cayenne pepper and maple syrup, with a laxative at bedtime but no other food for up to 10 days. It leaves many nutrition experts scratching their heads. Dr. Saltzman says a variety of medicinal properties have been linked with lemon juice and that cayenne can help soothe lingering pain from shingles. 'The real puzzler is the maple syrup,' he says.
但有些 化排毒法基本上就是断食。“大师 化法”是20世纪40年代用来治疗溃疡的,它的配方如下:6到12杯混合了柠檬汁、番椒和枫树糖浆的水以及睡前一粒泻药,其他别的食物一概不吃,这样一共坚持10天。这种断食法让许多营养专家百思不得其解。索尔兹曼博士博士称,柠檬汁已与各种各样的医用价值联系起来了,而番椒则有助于舒缓带状疱疹带来的挥之不去的疼痛。他说:“真正令人不解的是枫树糖浆。”

Peter Glickman, who helped revive the cleanse in a 2004 book, writes that the first three days are the hardest and that serenity, euphoria and mental clarity set in after about Day Eight.
彼得・格里科曼(Peter Glickman)曾在2004年的一本书中帮助回顾了上述疗法。他写道,头三天是最难熬的,大约过了第八天以后,人就开始变得宁静、欣快并头脑清醒。

The Mayo Clinic's Dr. Hensrud says it could be incipient starvation instead. 'But once you reintroduce a normal diet, everything goes back to normal,' he says.
梅奥诊所的韩斯鲁德博士说,正相反,那可能是快饿死的早期表现。他还说:“一旦当你重新进行正常饮食时,所有事情都会回归常态。”

The bevy of prepackaged juice cleanses that have burst on the market in recent years incorporate fruits, vegetables and protein into their detox regimens. BluePrintCleanse's program, for example, consists of six 16-ounce drinks a day, in precise order, for three days.
预先包装好的排毒果汁套装将水果、蔬菜和蛋白质混在一起纳入其排毒养生疗法中,近些年已火爆市场。举个例子,蓝图 化清理(BluePrintCleanse)的项目就是由每天六瓶16盎司(约合454克)的饮品组成,消费者需按精确的顺序喝掉饮料,一共要坚持三天。

Elaine McCormick, a creative director at a Manhattan advertising firm, says she has gone on BluePrintCleanses four or five times. 'Whether I'm cleansing my liver or colon, I don't know. But my body feels better. I'm eating vegetables and getting calcium.' she says.
曼哈顿(Manhattan)一家广告公司的创意总监伊莱恩・麦考密克(Elaine McCormick)称自己已坚持使用四五次蓝图 化清理法了。她说:“我不知道自己是否在清理肝脏或结肠。但我的身体感觉好多了。我现在正在吃蔬菜并摄取钙。”

Many cleanse aficionados are health-conscious anyway. They say periodically restricting their intake helps reboot their system. 'It breaks your relationship with food,' says Anne Pollack, a former chief investment officer at a large insurance company, who does a detox twice a year for three weeks with a nutrition counselor. She gives up all wheat, dairy, sugar, soy, chicken, red meat and alcohol and eats only brown rice, fruits, green vegetables, salmon and supplements such as milk thistle. After that, she says, 'I have an amazing amount of energy. My skin is soft. My hair is shiny and my nails grow like crazy.'
不管怎么说,许多排毒净体的狂热追崇者都很注重健康。他们称,定期控制自己的摄取量有助于“重启”他们的身体系统。一家大型保险公司的前首席投资官安妮・波拉克(Anne Pollack)说:“它打破你和食物的关系。”波拉克每年会在一名营养顾问的指导下做两次排毒,每次排毒持续三周。她放弃了所有的小麦制品、乳制品、糖、大豆、鸡肉、红色肉类和酒水,并只吃糙米、水果、绿色蔬菜、三文鱼和诸如水飞蓟这样的保健品。在那之后,她说“我精力充沛得惊人。我的皮肤柔滑了,头发也发亮,指甲也开始发疯似地长。”

Some packaged juice cleanses contain considerable amounts of sugar, leading some proponents to grind up their own fruit and vegetable concoctions at home. Some nutritionists recommend using a blender rather than a juicer to retain more pulp, because a liquid diet without fiber can slow down digestion. That's partly why some juice cleanses advise using a colon cleanse before and after to fully flush out the intestinal tract.
有些包装好的排毒 化果汁含有大量的糖份,这使得一些推崇者在家榨取属于他们自己的果蔬混合物。有些营养学家建议使用搅拌机而非榨汁机,这么做是为了保留更多的果肉,因为不含纤维的液态饮食会使消化过程减速。这也就是为什么有些果汁 化法建议在喝饮品前进行一次结肠清洗、而之后则彻底冲洗整个肠道的部分原因。

Most gastroenterologists, however, advise against using supplements, laxatives, enemas and irrigation devices that purport to remove accumulated waste clogging up the colon. It seldom exists, doctors say, and would-be detoxers can become constipated by using laxatives too often.
然而,大多数胃肠病学家建议不要吃那些声称能排出堵塞结肠积废的保健品、泻药、灌肠剂和灌洗品。医生们说,世上几乎不存在这样的东西,而太频繁地吃泻药则会使那些想要排毒的人变成便秘症患者。

Keeping the digestive tract moving normally is another reason many experts say simply eating more fruit and vegetables makes more sense than a drastic temporary regimen. New York nutritionist Bonnie Taub-Dix calls it 'clean eating.' She advises: 'Skip the cleanse. Have your green smoothie as a snack in the afternoon and then skip the vending machine.'
保持消化道的正常蠕动是许多专家坚持下面这一说法的另一个原因:单单多吃水果和蔬菜就比激进的暂时性的节食更有意义。纽约的营养师邦妮・托布-迪克斯(Bonnie Taub-Dix)将其称为“清洁进食”。她建议道:“别吃那些排毒 化品了。把你的绿色混合饮料当作零食在下午喝掉,然后就别再去自动贩卖机买吃的了。
 

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