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运动之前吃啥好呢

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What to Eat Before a Workout?

运动之前吃什么?
What’s the best thing to eat before a workout, game, or race?

在开始运动,游戏或者比赛之前,吃什么最好呢?
(a) a candy bar or other sugary food 15 minutes before, (b) a protein shake or bar 30 minutes before, (c) a low-fat, high-carb meal or snack one to four hours before, (d) nothing; you should fast.

(a) 锻炼前15分钟,吃块状糖或者其他含糖的食物。 (b) 锻炼前30分钟,补充喝蛋白奶昔或者能量棒。 (c) 锻炼前1到4小时,吃低脂高碳水化合物食物或者点心。 (d) 都不吃,你可以空腹

The answer is usually (c), but it depends on the type, length and intensity of your activity, what you ate onprevious days, your metabolism and your personal preferences.

答案通常是(c),但取决于你锻炼的种类,时长和强度,你运动前吃什么,你的新陈代谢以及你个人的饮食爱好。
If you’re just walking briskly or cycling for30 to 60 minutes, it doesn’t matter what you eat beforehand. But if you’re about to play singles tennis, go on a three hour bike ride or run for more than an hour, whatyou eat before—and during—the activity can affect your performance and how you feel.

如果你只是快走或者骑车30到60分钟,那之前吃什么都没关系。但如果你要玩单人网球,骑3个小时的单车或者跑多于一个小时的步,那你运动前或者运动中吃的东西会影响你的表现和感觉。
It’s important to find what works best for you. There’s no magic pre--exercise meal, but there are somegeneral guidelines for vigorous workouts lasting more than an hour.It’s best to eat one to four hours before the activity: the shorter the time to the event, the smaller the meal orsnack should be.

找到最适合你的饮食很重要。不存在运动前不可思议的食物,但有一些一般的准则,针对持续一个小时以上的强力运动。运动1到4个小时前吃东西:越靠近运动前,那越要少吃,无论是正餐还是小吃。
Choose foods that are high in carbs (preferably complex carbs that are not high in fiber), low in fat andmoderate in protein—such as crackers, fruit, pasta or low--fat yogurt—and that “sit well” with you. The goal is to maintain blood sugar and carbohydrate stores in the body, but not have much undigestedfood in the stomach, which can cause indigestion, gas or other discomfort.

选择一些含碳水化合物比较高的食物(最好是含纤维不高的复合碳水化合物),低脂并含适量蛋白质的食物比较靠谱,诸如咸饼干,水果,面团或者低脂酸奶。
目标是保持人体内的血糖和碳水化合物,但不多吃胃难消化的食物,这会导致消化不良,胃胀或者其他不适。
Why should athletes love carbs?

为什么运动员喜欢碳水化合物?
Carbohydrates are essential for athletic performance—in fact, for all physical as well as mental activity.They are the body’s major source of energy—in the form of glucose in the blood and glycogen (the stor-ageform of carbohydrates) in the muscles and liver—and are used more efficiently than proteins or fats. It’sparticularly important to eat enough carbs in the hours and days before prolonged activity (though special“carb--loading” regimens are no longer recommended).

碳水化合物对运动员的发挥很重要。事实上,对所有的心理或生理运动都很重要。他们是人体主要的能量源,以葡萄糖的形式存于肌肉和肝脏的血液或者糖原(碳水化合物的储存模式)中。它们比蛋白质或脂肪更加有效。在长时间锻炼的前几个小时或者前几天,吃足够多的碳水化合物尤其重要。
If you’re doing strength training, shouldn’t you eat more protein than carbs beforehand?

如果你正做力量训练,此前难道不该多吃蛋白质而不是碳水化合物吗?
No, the focus should stay on high-¬carb foods. Weight lifters and endur-ance athletes do need more proteinthan other people, but because of their greater food intake, they get the extra protein with little trouble.Some research has found that consuming some protein shortly after strength training can boost musclesynthesis, however.

What about the final hour before a workout?
当然不是,主要应侧重高碳水化合物的食物。举重或者耐力运动员比别人需要更多的蛋白质,但由于他们吃很多东西,所以补充额外的蛋白质不成问题。有些研究表明,在力量训练之后快速补充蛋白质能提高肌肉生成能力,但是,如果运动前的一个小时补充蛋白质会怎么样呢?
Years ago, experts advised not eating anything, especially sugary foods or drinks, shortly before exercising,since that can boost insulin levels and result in a drop in blood sugar, which could impair performance. Butinsulin levels go back down when you start to exercise. And the great majority of studies have found thateating carbs shortly before exercise actually improves performance or else has no effect on it.

多年以前,专家建议在运动前不要吃东西,特别是含糖的食物或者饮料,因为那能提高胰岛素水平或者降低血糖,会使发挥变差。但是当你开始训练时,胰岛素水平就下降了。并且大量研究表明只有运动前补充碳水化合物能提高发挥水平,吃其他的东西都没用。
Again, it depends on what you’ll be doing, what you ate earlier and what you’ll consume while exercising. Ifyou do eat during the final hour, try a small low-fat snack (less than 200 calories) or a lightly sugared beverage.

同样,这取决于你要做什么运动,你之前吃了什么或者你训练中吃了什么。如果你运动前一个小时确实要吃东西,那就试试一些小的低脂零食(少于200卡路里)或者少量的含糖饮料。
Is it better to get your pre--exercise calories and nutrients from liquids than from solid foods?

锻炼前补充卡路里和营养时,进食液态的食物会比固态的食物更好吗?
Whatever works for you. It takes longer for solid foods to be digested compared to liquids, which could be agood or bad thing when you exercise, depending on the timing. But studies have generally found that itdoesn’t matter whether you get your pre--workout calories from food or beverages.

这两种都好。固态食物比液态食物需要更多时间去消化,你训练期间这也许是好事但也可能是坏事,取决于你锻炼的时间。但通常研究表明,你运动前吃东西或者喝饮料都没太大区别。
Will fasting before exercise burn more body fat?

锻炼前绝食会燃烧更多脂肪吗?
No, what you eat before exercising has little or no effect on fat burning (oxidation). The body uses stored fatand carbs as fuel in varying pro-portions, depending on the length and intensity of the activities and othervariables.

不会,你锻炼前吃什么几乎不影响脂肪燃烧(氧化)。人体使用所储存的脂肪和碳水化合物作为燃料,它们的比例取决于锻炼的时长和强度,或者其他因素。
Studies on fasting in athletes have produced inconsis-tent results, and when they have found extra fatburning it is very modest. And some research has shown that people burn more fat when they eatsomething before exercising than when they fast. What’s more, for most people, fasting before intense orprolonged exercise will reduce energy levels and impair performance.

研究表明运动员的绝食产生了与之前矛盾的结果,有些调查结果表明,人们在运动前先绝食再进食会燃烧更多脂肪,这是一个十分保守的说法特别是他们发现额外的脂肪燃烧时候。还有,对绝大多数人来说,在剧烈的长时间运动之前绝食,会降低能量水平和影响发挥。
Should you eat while exercising—and what?

你锻炼期间可以吃东西吗?吃什么?
Yes, if you’re doing prolonged events such as long- distance running or cycling. For most people, a fewhours of sustained, vigorous activity will deplete their stored carbs, resulting in weakness, fatigue, and/orpain—what’s known as “hitting the wall.” So it’s important to eat small high--carb (again, low in fat and fiber)snacks to maintain blood sugar and fuel your muscles and brain. You can also get the carbs from beverages.

可以,如果你在做一些时间较长的运动,比如长距离跑步或者骑车。对大多数人而言,几个小时的持续有力的锻炼会消耗他们存储的碳水化合物,导致虚弱,疲惫或者酸痛。这就是众所周知的“撞墙”。因此吃一些少量高碳水化合物的零食很重要(同样要低脂和少纤维),有利于保持血糖平衡和为肌肉和大脑提供能量。你同样也可以喝饮料补充碳水化合物。
What's the best way to stay hydrated?

保持身体水分的最好方法是什么?
If you exercise moderately for less than an hour, all you need to do is drink when you’re thirsty—and wateris fine. But for prolonged exercise, especially in hot weather, drink plenty of fluids.

如果你运动量少于一个小时,你只需口渴的时候喝点东西就好了——喝水即可。但对于长时间的锻炼,特别是夏日炎炎的时候,那要喝足够多的液体。
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends drinking fluids (about 15 ounces for a 165-¬poundperson) at least four hours beforehand. Also drink at regular inter-vals during long workouts, even if you arenot thirsty, and drink adequately afterwards. For such endurance exercise, beverages with low to moderate sugar content as well as some potassium and sodium, such as sports drinks, are recommended.

美国运动药物大学建议锻炼前至少4个小时补充液体(15盎司或者165磅每人)。在长时间锻炼的休息间隔里也要补充,尽管你不渴,在锻炼之后要大量补充液体。对于像耐力训练这样的训练,建议喝像运动饮料,含有低或者中度的含糖量,同时补充钾和钠。

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