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双语阅读 这十大简单事,其实复杂到让你困惑

最新订阅内容:英语爱好者摘要:The Proof For ’1+1=2′ Is 300 Pages Long 为了证明1+1=2,数学家用了300多页纸来计算


There are a lot of things in this world that people don’t understand because, hey, the world is a confusing place. But we can always take solace in the fact that there are some really simple concepts and ideas out there that we can all understand. However, as is often the way with life, when you start to look closely at some of these concepts, you realize that you’ve opened a giant can of worms.






10 The Proof For ’1+1=2′ Is 300 Pages Long



10 为了证明1+1=2,数学家用了300多页纸来计算



The equation 1+1=2 is probably the very first bit of math that most of us learned, because addition and subtraction are probably the simplest concepts in mathematics. If you have one apple and somebody gives you another, you have two apples. By the same logic, if you have two apples and someone takes one away, you only have one apple. It’s a universal fact of life that transcends barriers like language or race. Which is what makes the following sentence so unbelievable: The proof for 1+1=2 is well over 300 pages long and it wasn’t conclusively proven until the 20th century.






As Stephen Fry explains in this handy clip, in the early 20th century, Bertrand Russell wanted to conclusively prove that mathematics worked, so he decided to start with the simplest concept we know of and went right ahead and proved 1+1=2. However, what sounds like an incredibly simple task actually took the mathematician and philosopher 372 pages of complex sums. The mammoth solution was published as Principia Mathematica across three volumes, which we invite you to read if you aren’t planning on doing anything for the next few weeks.






9 The Definition Of ‘Almost Surely’ Is A Mathematical Nightmare



9 对“几乎必然”的定义是数学上的一个噩梦



If we were to say that a given event was almost sure to happen, how would you explain that to a small child? Maybe you’d say that the event was practically guaranteed, but then you’d have to explain what “practically” meant in regards to that sentence, which would just confuse things further. It’s a tough question because the concept of something being “almost sure” to happen is so vague in and of itself.






Luckily for us all, the concept exists within statistical mathematics, which explains it fully. Unluckily, it’s incredibly intimidating at first glance. To quote an online math textbook on the concept:






“In probability theory, a property is said to hold almost surely if it holds for all sample points, except possibly for some sample points forming a subset of a zero-probability event.”






In more basic language, that essentially means that even when an event has a 100 percent chance of occurring, it won’t necessarily occur. For example, if you flipped a coin a million times, statistically, the odds of the coin landing on heads at least once is essentially one. However, there is an infinitesimally small chance that the coin could land on tails every single time. So although the odds of the event happening are for all intents and purposes guaranteed, it is impossible to say that.






8 Defining The Word ‘The’ Is Really Difficult



8 给单词“The”下定义是一件十分困难的事儿



The word “the” is one of the most commons words in the English language. It’s so ubiquitous that most of us have probably never stopped to think about how strange of a word it actually is.






As discussed here, it’s easily one of the most difficult words to explain to a non-native English speaker because it has such a massive range of applications, some of which are remarkably odd when looked at objectively. To quote:“Why do we say, ‘I love the ballet,’ but not ‘I love the cable TV?’ Why do we say, ‘I have the flu,’ but not ‘I have the headache?’ Why do we say, ‘winter is the coldest season,’ and not ‘winter is coldest season?’ ”



正如这里所谈到的,由于“the”的用法十分广泛,而且客观地考虑,其中一些用法还非常奇怪,它是人们很难向非英语母语人士解释清楚的单词之一。引用《为什么人们很难给单词“the”下定义》(Why Is the Word the So Difficult to Define?)一文中的例子:“为什么我们说‘I love the ballet(我喜欢芭蕾)’而不说‘I love the cable TV(我喜欢有线电视)?’为什么我们说‘I have the flu(我得了流感)’而不说‘I have the headache(我头疼)?’为什么我们说,‘winter is the coldest season(冬天是最寒冷的季节),’而不说‘winter is coldest season?’”



Think about it—we use the word “the” in dozens of different situations and in reference to many different concepts, ideas, and objects interchangeably. We can use the word to refer to everything from a specific item to an abstract metaphorical concept, and native speakers can instinctively tell when it’s being used incorrectly without thinking about it.






As noted in the linked article above, the dictionary itself lists almost two dozen different ways the word can be used in a sentence correctly, which makes an exact definition of the word that much more difficult to pin down. Don’t believe us? Try defining it yourself in the comments and let us know how it goes.



正如以上链接的文章(指Why Is the Word the So Difficult to Define?)所指出的,字典上列出的该单词在句中的正确用法有将近20种,这使得该单词的定义更为准确,却也使人们更难明晰其具体的含义。不相信我们?那么你自己试着定义一下吧,然后写在评论中,让我们看看你是怎么定义的。



7 There’s No Universally Accepted Theory On How Bikes Work



7 关于自行车的工作原理,还没有普遍认同的理论



Bicycles have existed for over 100 years, and since they were invented we’ve mastered land, sea, and air travel while making impressive headway into space. We have planes that can traverse the globe in a matter of hours, so you’d think that by now we’d have the humble bicycle just about figured out. But oddly, that’s not the case.






As mentioned in this article, scientists have been arguing about how exactly they work, or more specifically, how they stay upright, almost since they were first invented. For a long time, the major theory was that the gyroscopic force of the wheels spinning kept bikes upright, but when scientists built a special bicycle with contraptions attached to it designed to counteract any gyroscopic forces produced by the wheels, it stayed upright and no one could explain how.There are theories that the bike’s design allows it to steer into a fall and thus correct itself, but they’re still just theories. And because bicycle dynamics isn’t exactly an area of science into which researchers like to invest their time, it’s highly unlikely that we’ll know for sure anytime soon.



正如《我们仍不知道自行车的工作原理》(We still don’t really know how bicycles work)一文中提到的那样,自从人类发明自行车之初,科学家们就一直为自行车确切的工作原理,更具体地说—它们是如何保持平衡的而争论不休。很长时间以来,一种主要的理论是车轮旋转发出的回转力使得自行车保持平衡。但是后来科学家们制造了一辆特殊的自行车,在车上安装了奇妙的装置来抵消轮子所产生的回转力,自行车仍能保持平衡,没有人能解释这是为什么。还有理论称自行车的设计使其能够引导车子倾斜的方向2,进而作出调整,不过这些也只是理论。而且由于研究者们不太愿意将他们的时间花在自行车动力学这一科学领域,在未来很短的时间内,我们是不大可能知道自行车确切的工作原理的。



6 How Long Is A Piece Of String? It’s Impossible To Know



6 一根绳子有多长?这是根本不可能知道的。



If someone was to give you a piece of string and ask you how long it was, you’d assume that answering them would be a fairly simple, if rather odd task. But how would you answer that person if they wanted to know exactly how long that piece of string was? That was something comedian Alan Davies wanted to ascertain for a BBC TV special aptly called How Long is a Piece of String? by posing the deceptively simple question to a group of scientists.



如果有人给你一根绳子,然后问你绳子有多长,你肯定会认为回答他们真是太简单了,尽管这个任务有些奇怪。但是如果这个人想要知道绳子的精确长度,你会怎么回答呢?这是在BBC一档特别电视节目中,喜剧演员艾伦•戴维斯想要弄清楚的问题,这档电视节目的名字很贴切,叫《一根绳子有多长》(How Long is a Piece of String?)。节目中,他把这个看似很简单的问题抛给了一组科学家。



The answer was, rather ironically, “it depends,” because the exact definition of how long something is depends on who you ask. Mathematicians told the comedian that a piece of string could theoretically be of infinite length, while physicists told him that due to the nature of subatomic physics and the fact that atoms can technically be in two places at once, measuring the string precisely is impossible.



5 Yawning



5 打哈欠



Yawning is a puzzling phenomenon. Even the simple act of talking about it is enough to make some people do it (some of you are probably doing it right now). There really is no other bodily function quite like it.






Now, some of you reading this may be aware of the long-standing theory that the purpose of yawning is to keep us alert by forcing our bodies to take in an extra large gulp of oxygen. That makes sense, because we mostly yawn when we’re tired or bored, situations where an extra burst of energy would come in handy.






The thing is, experiments have conclusively disproven that theory over the years. In fact, there is no universally agreed upon theory for why we actually yawn, even though everyone does it. A commonly accepted theory is that yawning actually cools down the brain, because various experiments have shown that one of the few things to actually change in the body during a yawn is the temperature of the brain itself.






As for why yawning is contagious, no one knows that either.






4 Left And Right Have Been Confusing Philosophers For Years



4 “左”与“右”的问题已困扰哲学家们多年



How would you explain the concept of left and right to someone who had no idea what those words meant? Would you explain it in terms of your relative position to a well-known stationary landmark? Or maybe you’d think outside the box and refer to the rotation of the Earth or something comparably massive and unchanging. But what if you were talking to an alien whose planet rotated differently to our own, or one who didn’t have eyes? It’s a question that has been intriguing philosophers for years because, without an agreed upon point of reference, it’s incredibly difficult to define what left and right actually are.For example, consider the work of German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who once said, “Let it be imagined that the first created thing were a human hand, then it must necessarily be either a right hand or a left hand.”






However, with only one hand, it’s impossible to explain which hand it is without another one present. Think about it for a second—right and left hands are clearly very different from one another, but if you were to describe them, the descriptions would be literally identical because they’re the same. Only they aren’t because, as Kant himself put it, a left hand can’t fit into a right-handed glove, so there is a difference between them. However, said difference is practically impossible to put into words without the other hand being present.






If you think we’re over-complicating this, we should point out that there is literally a 400-page book on the philosophy of right and left, aptly called The Philosophy Of Right And Left. That’s more pages than it took to work out 1+1=2.



如果你认为我们夸大了这一问题的复杂性,那我们应当指出,关于左和右的哲学还真有一本400多页的书,名字也很贴切,就叫《左与右的哲学》(The Philosophy Of Right And Left)这可比验证1+1=2所占的页数还要多。



3 We Enjoy Things For Reasons Other Than Enjoyment



3 我们喜欢某些事物是出于理性而非快乐



Enjoyment is a weird thing because it’s so subjective—for every person who loves a given food, song, or movie, there’s another person who adamantly hates it. You’d think that the reason we enjoy things is because it feels good in some way, but scientists have conclusively proven that that’s only half the story.




For example, people can be fooled into thinking they love a certain food or wine just by telling them it’s really expensive. The same can be said for objects—people will instinctively choose an expensive product over a cheaper one purely because of the price. Enjoyment is barely even a factor. In marketing, this is known as the “Chivas Regal effect,” named for the scotch of the same name which saw sales explode after they simply raised the price of their product.






To further illustrate the point, there’s a famous experiment where wine experts were fooled into thinking a cheap bottle of wine was an exceptional vintage just by switching the labels. Their enjoyment of the product wasn’t based on some deeply held love and appreciation of wine—it was based entirely on the fact that they were told it was good wine. Which, to be honest, is much easier.






2 Some Mosquitoes Bite People Because Of Their Clothes



2 一些蚊子咬人是由于衣服的缘故



If you’ve ever been bitten by a mosquito, chances are someone nearby has given you a recycled explanation for why the insect decided to ruin your day. Maybe they said that you smelled good, or that you had a particular blood type, or maybe they just told you that your shirt makes you look like a victim. We’re not being facetious with that list, by the way—they’re all things that scientists believe can cause mosquitoes to find you more attractive.






As a recent Smithsonian article details, 20 percent of people seem to be strangely attractive to mosquitoes, and no one is really in agreement as to why. The simple answer would appear to be that it’s something in a person’s blood that attracts mosquitoes. However, it would appear that the mosquitoes are actually attracted by a chemical signal given off by the body. It’s present in around 85 percent of us—which also explains why some people seem invisible to mosquitoes—and it indicates what your blood type is.






Another, stranger theory is that mosquitoes are naturally attracted to darker, more vivid colors. In other words, it’s actually been theorized—and in some cases shown—that mosquitoes will bite people because they like their shirt.






1 Rock-Paper-Scissors Is The Most Serious Game In The World



1 剪刀—石头—布是世界上最正经的游戏



Nothing could be simpler than a game of rock-paper-scissors; it’s the easiest way to decide any argument because it’s basically just random chance, right?






Well, not if the dozens of papers written about the subject are to be believed. The game has become a favorite research topic of psychologists because of how intertwined rock-paper-scissors is with subconscious human responses and game theory. As a result, dozens of strategies exist to help players get an edge in the game—including playing blindfolded to avoid being subconsciously influenced by an opponent’s body language.



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